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PAN

Yu-Liang

​潘玉良

1895-1977

西方自古希臘時期開始,即展開對人體比例結構的探索與研究,至文藝復興時期人文主義興起,透過對於人體的歌頌,重新意識到人本身的價值, 從此奠定深厚的人體藝術審美文化。反觀中國,在「天人合一」的傳統哲理中,藝術家往往關注於大自然與自身的交融, 而未將人視為單一個體來進行探討。直到五四運動引進西方文化思潮,文學作品開始注重對於女子的形象塑造,並將女性解放意識融入女性人體的刻劃中, 而後隨著美術教育中模特兒畫法的傳入,中國才開始正式出現裸體畫。對於潘玉良而言,裸女作為她重要的創作題材, 標誌的不單是對美的追求與藝術創新,因其備受爭議的出身而不見容於當時封建社會,裸體畫更是帶有她抒發自我、追求自由的強烈企圖。 潘玉良在1928年學成歸國後,又於1937年重返法國,從她與家人間的書信可以知道她一直渴望可以回到故鄉,但1949年以前的中國戰火仍頻, 加上保守的現實大環境無法讓她自由自在的創作,因此潘玉良為了藝術選擇到巴黎作為後半生的居住地,專心一致追求創作與人格上的自由。 1950年代前期,潘玉良逐漸減少油畫創作,而將重心轉移到彩墨上,透露出對於自身中國傳統文化的回歸,另一方面,經過三十年來在創作上的探索, 對於平面媒材與立體雕塑、東方水墨技法與油彩的嫻熟掌握,藝術家選擇轉向彩墨表現她對於中西藝術融合的體會。1952年的《裸女》(Lot 1066) 描繪了一個屈膝盤腿的女子,右手托腮、側向正面的臉龐露出若有所思的神情,在身體的複雜姿態中, 可以見到潘玉良對於人體結構的掌握乃是建立在紮實的素描功底之上。自1940年代開始,她便將原屬於傳統水墨畫的線條用於油畫, 此處重新回到東方媒材更顯遊刃有餘,在線條流暢的轉折中,充滿抑揚頓挫與急緩行止的細膩變化。雖然中國傳統文化強調弱質女流的嬌柔之美, 潘玉良的畫中女子卻以豐潤的形象展現了飽含生命力的狀態,可說在富於感官性的女體描繪上,注入了內在精神層面的特質。 中國傳統的人物畫在敷彩設色多講究清雅,潘玉良承續了這個傳統,並在筆法上開創了嶄新的觀點, 她將1948年油畫中開始發展的不規則十字交叉筆觸挪用於此,淺色的短筆觸連綿相接,依著女體的輪廓排列錯落有致,雖有濃淡乾溼的些微差異, 卻正好形成了肌膚的自然紋裡,而呈現出人體實在的體積和量感,這也來自藝術家對於中西媒材特質的掌握,才得以體現她的藝術主張:「合中西於一治, 及由古人中求我,非一從古人而忘我之」。背景則在長短不一、或直或橫的線條中,產生了色墨交織的效果, 遠觀時即在渲染的統一色調透出幽遠的空間深度。 傳統中國書畫以線條為重,講究氣韻生動,與西方藝術著力捕捉瞬間,努力再現當下真實,屬於截然不同的審美觀點,乍看之下《裸女》 似乎僅是以典型的中國傳統技法描繪出西方題材,但我們若仔細觀察與思考其中細節,則可發現潘玉良對於畫面一切的形式元素皆經過細心鋪陳, 兼採中西不同的美學觀點,在媒材特性與技法的活用中,開創出深具個人特色的畫風,因此,在其一生跨越表現主義、 野獸派與中國傳統的多變藝術風格中,《裸女》也成為深具中西融合特色的代表作品。

 

Private Collection, Asia National Museum of History, The Art of Pan Yu-Lin, Taipei, Taiwan, 1995 (illustrated, plate 104, p. 117). In the west, the exploration and study of proportion and structure of human body started from the Hellenistic period. It wasn't until the rise of humanism during the Renaissance, the value of human identity was revived by praising human body and from then on, the deeply rich aesthetic cultures of human body was established. In China, however, artists were used to paying attention to the blend of nature and human but not emphasizing on human as a single individual due to the affection of traditional philosophy discussing the "unity of nature and human". The depiction of women images did not appear in literature until the May Fourth Movement due of the introduction of western cultures and ideologies, which integrated the awareness of female liberation into the depiction of female body. Nudity painting developed in China after the idea of drawing from real models was introduced in art education. Nude woman is an important element in Pan Yuliang's works, which not only symbolizes the pursuit of beauty and the innovation of art, but also her way of expressing the strong intention of having freedom since her background was controversially unacceptable in the feudal society at that time. Pan went back to her home country in 1928 after completing her education and returned to France again in 1937. She had always expressed the longing of returning to her homeland in letters written to her family. However, the persistent warfare in China prior to 1949 and the conservative surroundings limited her freedom in art creation. Therefore, she chose to stay in Paris for the rest of her life so as to pursue the independence in creation and personality. In early 1950s, the number of oil painting completed by Pan was decreasing when she moved back to ink and colour painting instead, revealing her return to Chinese traditional media. Moreover, after 30 years of artistic exploration, she was already highly skilful in 2-dimensional media, sculptures, ink painting and oil painting. Thus she turns towards ink and colour painting to express her profound understanding in the integration of eastern and western art. Nude (Lot 1066) completed in 1952 depicts a woman, who seems to be in her deep thoughts, with her legs crossed, head leaning against her hand while showing her profile. Observing from the complicated postures, it is obvious that Pan's handling of figurative is built up by the solid foundation from doing sketches. From 1940s onwards, she had applied lines, originally used in traditional ink painting, on oil medium, going back to the Chinese media at this point and becoming more skilful in handling it. Cadence and speed can be seen in the smooth transition of lines. Although the feminine beauty of women is emphasized in traditional Chinese culture, the women in Pan's paintings are presented in voluptuous shape, full of vitality. A unique spirit is instilled in the depiction of the female form with rich sensuality. The use of colour in Chinese traditional figure painting is always about elegance and simplicity. Pan retained this tradition and found a completely fresh point of view in her painterly skills. She used criss-crossed brushstrokes, which she developed from oil painting in 1948. The continuous rapid strokes in light colours are arranged in an spontaneous manner according to the contour of the female body. Despite the slight differences between heavy and light, dry and wet brushstrokes, the natural lines depicting the body are aptly composed, representing an actual sense of body proportion which comes from the understanding of the characteristic of eastern and western painting medium . She expresses her theory as "combining east and west in one place, finding myself following my predecessors of the antiquity but not letting myself to just follow them blindly. " The background with long and short, vertical and horizontal lines portrays an effect of interweaving colour and ink, revealing a mysterious and remote spatial depth applied by the united tone of hues viewing from afar. Traditional Chinese painting and calligraphy focus on the energy and vitality expressed in the use of lines. This application departed from the Western artistic conception to realistically capture a moment. At first glance, Nude is just a typical representation of Chinese technicality of western subject matter. But if we are to observe carefully, it is not difficult to see that Pan is adopting different aesthetic points of view from both east and west to attentively arrange formal elements on her paintings. Through the uniqueness of her painting materials and application, she developed a highly personal style. Therefore, in her artistic career which spans from Expressionism, Fauvism and the ever-changing Chinese artistic tradition, Nude has become her most representational work.